The Directorate General of Employment & Training (DGE&T) in the Ministry of Labour, Government of India initiated Craftsmen Training Scheme (CTS) in 1950 by establishing about 50 Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) for imparting skills in various vocational trades to meet the skilled manpower requirements for technology and industrial growth of the country. The second major phase of increase in ITIs came with the oil-boom in West-Asia and export of skilled manpower to that region from India. Several new private ITIs were established in 1980’s in southern states mostly in Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, etc. from where trained craftsmen found placement mainly in Gulf countries. In 1980, there were 830 ITIs and the number rose to 1900 ITIs in 1987. During 1990’s, the growth of ITIs had been steep and presently there are over 10,750 ITIs (2275 in Govt. & 8475 in Private Sector) having a total seating capacity of 15.22 lakhs.
Under the constitution of India, Vocational training is the concurrent subject of both Central and State Governments. The development of training schemes at National level, evolution of policy, laying of training standards, norms, conducting of examinations, certification, etc. are the responsibilities of the Central Government, whereas the implementation of the training schemes largely rests with the State Govts./UT Administrators. The Central Govt. is advised by the National Council of Vocational Training (NCVT), a tripartite body having representatives from employers, workers and Central/State Governments. Similar Councils termed as State Councils for Vocational Training are constituted for the same purpose by the respective State Governments at state levels.